Illyrian ceramic vessels found in Durres

Illyrian ceramic vessels found in Durres

TIRANA, Jan. 14 – Over 220 red-figured ceramic vessels dating back to the 4th century BC were unearthed at the necropolis of the Dauta, Kokomani and Spitalle hills, in Durres. These vessels are believed to be products from Illyrian tribes

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The Delegation: a film review

The Delegation: a film review

By Sonja Methoxha During 2018, the National Center for Cinematography (NCC) approved the funding of 36 Albanian film projects, out of which 16 managed to be directed and actually debut. Two of those films even participated in international film festivals

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A recap of culture in Albania during 2018

A recap of culture in Albania during 2018

Debates, confrontations and conflicts stirred the arts and culture sphere in Albania. Some issues are still left inconclusive, beginning with the National Theatre activities calendar, whether the National Library will move buildings, will the National Arts Gallery rehabilitate its strategy,

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77 year-old man takes care of old Berat church

77 year-old man takes care of old Berat church

Jani Pjetri is a 77 year-old man from Berat, who though retired, is independently working as the caretaker of the St. Mary Church in the village Sinje of Berat. Pjetri returned from immigration in 2010, to find the church abandoned

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Albanian lute heritage dates since 14th century

Albanian lute heritage dates since 14th century

By Sonja Methoxha A debate recently stirred Albanian people’s sentiments over the heredity of the musical instrument lahuta (lute). This came after Serbia managed to successfully submit to UNESCO its candidature of ‘’singing to the accompaniment of the gusle’’ as

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Women in business face hardships

Women in business face hardships

Even though women in Albania makeup half of the entire population, their path to entrepreneurship and business faces hardships. An investigative piece by Mimoza in the Voice of America Balkans inspects some of the issues businesswomen in Albania face. Women

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National Arts Gallery closes Onufri

National Arts Gallery closes Onufri

The pressively asked question as to what was happening to the annual national exhibition Onufri, the National Arts Gallery finally answered to the anticipating artists and public on the decision to close it. The exhibition was previously sought to be

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Shkodra celebrates Christmas with environmental exhibition

Shkodra celebrates Christmas with environmental exhibition

The end-of-year celebrations in Albania are a happy festivity of out nation, as the cities decorate their centers and streets with various shiny lights, trees and other objects. In Shkodra this Christmas a street exhibition called ‘’Environmental Crime’’ was set

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Albanians celebrate Christmas

Albanians celebrate Christmas

Thousands of Albanian Catholics, Christians and Orthodox people celebrated Christmas, one of the most important celebrations of their faith and religion. In Tirana people gathered in the churches to hold the traditional ceremony and other organized celebration concerning this festivity.

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Merry Christmas from Tirana

Merry Christmas from Tirana

As Tirana is the capital of Albania, there are numerous events to follow daily. Those events start from having a coffee at the countless cozy cafes around the city, to having a warm wine at the Skanderbeg Square, checking out

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                    [post_content] => TIRANA, Jan. 14 - Over 220 red-figured ceramic vessels dating back to the 4th century BC were unearthed at the necropolis of the Dauta, Kokomani and Spitalle hills, in Durres. 

These vessels are believed to be products from Illyrian tribes that inhabited that area of Durres.

The ceramic with red figures is essential in understanding the cultural reality and mundane life of the Illyrian tribes.

It appears the Illyrians inhabited areas from the 5th century BC until the 4th century BC. This presence is a testimony of the ancient and continuous trade relations between the Illyrian tribes and Mediterranean cultures, especially in the Adriatic coast. 

The first evidence refers to imports with symposium scenes, toilette, etc., and regarding to mythological themes, Gods and heroes are figured, especially Hercules. Other themes include the epos, the everyday civic life, athletics, meetings, etc.. 

The Durres made vessels with red figures differ from the imported products by the colors of the rose-ocher clay and the high quality refined decorations, assumed to be inspired by Apulian images. The extraction of the used clay is proved by chemical analyses made from the Currila hill’s deposited layers, located at city’s north along the shore. To this result is attributed the importance of trade relations that Epidamnus (ancient Durres) had with the Helenian cities and Adriatic coast states, characterized by the cultural relations with the Illyrian world.

The geographic characteristics and the city’s position at the entry of eastern Adriatic as an historical harbor for trade paths has helped in the economic relations between the city and other Mediterranean realities, especially with southern Italy. This has created conditions for relationships with schools of the period’s painters, particularly with the 5th and ending 4th centuries BCE masters. The historical connections in terms of trade and culture with southern Italy, Illyrian realities and Helenian world, strengthened new ceramic technics in the city, especially the Attican style.  

The Attican imitations of ceramics produced in Durres wouldn’t achieve its standards, but nevertheless the Durres stylistic characteristics faced an appraisal by the local inhabitants. The local production was intensified from years 350 to 300 BCE, marking thus a production end. 

Some of these productions belong to luxury ceramic due to its refined aesthetical aspects, which were much requested by the local elite. There is a lack of kraters from the discovered containers in Durres. these discoveries have allowed the identification of trade partners such as Apulia, Calabrians, Lukans, Campanians, etc.. Many vessels display stylistic affinities with Apulians’ world (the Dauns, Yapiges, Messapians). It is worth stressing that each center of antiquity has its own characteristics. 

The first Attican imports date from the 5th century BCE, which are exhibited at the Durres Archeology Museum. The imported works of Brygos painter as amphoras with goddess Nike refiguration, the oenochoe with Athens, and Hercules, linked with the city’s establishment according to Appiani.

This last scene is also present in other works dating in the 5th century BCE. The Attican influence phase ends by year 350 BC with the local productions of great amphora with an Amazonian scene.

Local amphoras depict scenes from the Trojan war, where Amazonian queen Penthesilea on a horse opposite shielded Achilles on his feet, and another Amazonian warrior seated nearby are refigured. This scene representation allows us to see the painter’s perspective. Complementary motifs of the Attican style of 5th century BC are leaves, mints or crosses.

In this period the Durres ceramics is enriched and inspired by the Apulian style, which are influenced in the local works of the Durres masters. Such an instance is in fruition of the ceramic mosaics subjects, especially the Durres Beauty. 

The high demand for products by the Illyrian domestic market pushed the local masters to intensify their production by 330 BCE. This high production period turned Durres as the main center of the Illyrian market. The local production of the red-figure vessels in Durres for the Illyrian tribes led to a decline of imports from Apulia and other Mediterranean centers, and it is assumed that the year 330 BCE marks the dominance of local production in durres and in whole Illyria. 

The names of local painters are unknown because they didn’t leave any personal notes or names in their works. Nevertheless, this doesn’t create an issue in distinguishing the hand of specialized masters, for example the Master of Venus and Eros; the Master of goddess Nike, who prefers Dionysus scenes. Eros and Nike are typical refigurations of the 4th century BC. 

The cultural-economic development of Durres is also evident by the enriched funerary objects, in which by the of 4th century BC we find the presence of lekythos with reliefs and decorations. The scenes refer to duels, abductions of nymphs or Amazons. On the figures it is used a white paste depicting rosette-shaped flowers over their shoulders. By the end of the century a black color with mild luster on a rosey background with line intersections is used, with white-colored painted drops and elements. The general tendency of the masters seemed to be the crossing from a rich-on-elements scenography, to a more modest one with silhouette technique. This allows us to classify the subjects in two developmental categories.

The first category belongs to the 5th up to 4th centuries BC which follows the Attican and Apulian tradition of scenes and decorative elements refiguration. The second category includes the 4th century BC with local productions with refiguration of Venus, who is oftenly painted with Nike and Eros; the refiguration of Dionysus or Silenians, Maenads, Trojan war scenes, the return of Odyssey, etc..

The preferred scenes from civilians were mainly those concerning the everyday life, from home, city, athletics, reconstructions of Phebes, women, men, etc.. Present are also the animals linked with the Gods or everyday life, like owls, bulls, doves, panthers, horses, dogs, swans and rabbits. 

The scenes are enriched by floral motifs with palmette and spiral flowers, whereas the lip and neck of the vessels are decorated by various models, such as bay leaves, olives, sea waves, etc.. In some cases the scenes are decorated in the lower part with mint motifs, angles, and crosses in the center. 

By the end of the 4th century BC there is generally a lack of dye quality in the red-figured ceramics. It is usually passed from a complex scene with three or more figures, to one figure, which is less reckoned. In this period of ending 330 BC, the red-figured lekythos with the silhouette technique are the main Durres products, which are exported both to other Illyrian and Mediterranean centers. It is worth stressing that these products seized the Illyrian markets during the 4th and 3rd centuries BC. 

Supporting this evidence are the kraters discovered in Belsh and the amphoras discovered in Klos, which are produced by Durres masters and exhibited at the National History Museum. In Durres are also discovered Gnathia vases from beginning 3rd century BC. The majority of the red-figures ceramics comes from discovered burial objects, mainly with women or athletes, of various kinds, like amphoras, pelikes, oenochoe, hydrias, nuptial lebes, lekanes, skyphoses, lekythos, situlas, etc..

These vases are exhibited at the Durres Archeology Museum, the Tirana Archeology Museum, and the National History Museum. Owing to its predominant role in the Illyrian markets, Durres can be attributed the alias ‘’cultural beacon,’’ because it actually signaled the access of ships at Illyrian culture areas. 

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                    [post_content] => By Sonja Methoxha

During 2018, the National Center for Cinematography (NCC) approved the funding of 36 Albanian film projects, out of which 16 managed to be directed and actually debut.

Two of those films even participated in international film festivals - Streha Mes Reve (A shelter among the clouds) at Tallinn Black Nights Film Festival in Estonia, and Delegacioni (The Delegation) at Warsaw International Film Festival in Poland, where it won the Grand Prix.

Hearing the news of this triumph gave me a warm feeling of pride, but more than that, it awakened a curiosity about watching the film. 

I can’t say I had high expectations; nevertheless, its poster had given me the idea it was an action movie packed with guns, escapes and Hollywood-style interactions. 

The film is written by Artan Minarolli and dedicated to him, and directed by Bujar Alimani. Part of the cast are Viktor Zhusti, Ndricim Xhepa, Xhevdet Ferri, Kasem Hoxha, etc.. The production comes as a collaboration between Albania, Kosovo, Greece and France, and discusses the events in Albania after the communist regime fell in the 1990s, the democracy it embraced and the remaining political struggles. 

A European delegation has arrived in Tirana to closely study how are the democratic reforms undertaken by the government are working out. These reforms are main conditions set to Albania to join CSBE, which today is known as OSCE. The head of the delegation, Mr. Loherin, had been a classmate and close friend to an intellectual professor turned political prisoner, while they were students in Prague. 

Now, the government sends “a delegation” to the prison to fetch the professor and meet Mr. Loherin, so Albania can be granted the admission at CSBE. The professor is not to be aware of this; however he does find out, and things don’t end so well.

This Albanian delegation never arrives in Tirana because their car breaks down. By the events that follow throughout the movie, it can be understood that this film is not about action, but rather about the fluctuating sentiments and thoughts still prevalent in Albanians, about democracy, our country itself and its future, the government and people. 

“I was in prison,’’ tells the professor to the responsible employee for his safety, referring to the physical prison. “But you are in prison and you don’t know it,’’ he also remarks to the employee, referring to his mentality and being. 

The film itself I think is about mentality. You have the representation of intellectuals, who have either rebelled and didn’t comply to the government as its tools, or that learn to keep their mouths shut and go on with their work. You have the blind followers, inspired by a sense of security and nationalism, and on the other hand the youth that embraces change, that won’t do so forcefully, but rather with a smile. You also can see a representation of the people who are adaptable to all situations offered, but nevertheless, take only what is offered, and I think there is the question a question raised regarding the reasons, which I think it’s left unanswered or up to the audience. And on top of all, there is the government, which theatricalizes situations and conspires so it will keep itself to power, and exploit opportunities from everywhere.

An unforeseen experience which immerses you into its events and people. A film that focuses on 1990s, but discusses of untimely subjects, especially regarding our country.

Regarding the film situation in Albania director Saimir Kumbaro has said in an interview with Report TV that after the ‘90s the Albanian film has faced a decline and is in agony. He blames the little funds the NCC grants and the licensing of amateur film studios. He said that the NCC has wrongly focused on quantity over quality in film production, which has led to limited scenery and unqualified actors or staff. 

The NCC calls 2018 a success. Two Albanian films participated in international film festivals, 12 films were premiered during the year in our country and more are to come. It is worth mentioning that the Tirana International Film Festival took place in the capital by the end of the year, with a high demand on inquiries after the news that the winner of the Best Short Live Action/Animation will be ranked in the Oscar nominations of the category. 

Even if the rest of the 15 films that the NCC produced on 2018 are of less deserved quality, it was worth stressing that the film Delegacioni was a truly critically acclaimed film, not only due its awarding of Warsaw Grand Prix, but more for its plot and subject, directorial work, and acting. 

 
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                    [post_content] => Debates, confrontations and conflicts stirred the arts and culture sphere in Albania. Some issues are still left inconclusive, beginning with the National Theatre activities calendar, whether the National Library will move buildings, will the National Arts Gallery rehabilitate its strategy, will lahuta be claimed as an Albanian intangible cultural heritage, and what innovations will the new appointed Minister of Culture Elva Margariti bring to the table. 

2018 was a jarring year for the Albanian art and culture. The question artists are asking is whether will 2019 bring positive changes in this sphere, and all are hoping for the best. Below you have a listed recap of the most noted cultural issues throughout the year.

2018 as the year of Skanderbeg

skenderbeu

The year we left behind was an overall troubled one for arts and culture, where debates prevailed and issues are left unsolved or unanswered. However, some institutional circles organized a number of positive cultural activities in art and history world. One such activity were the exhibition with rare antiquaries on the figure of our national hero Skanderbeg at the Palace of Congresses. This was considered the most serious exhibition on the figure among the many throughout the year, which was announced as the Pan-national Year of Skanderbeg. 

The exhibition for our national hero at the Palace of Congresses displayed images, history books written in Milano since 1473, the Epistola gifted by Papa Pius II, Marin Barleti history of 1508-1510, and other materials from archives.

Debates with Ministry of Culture and continuous protests over National Theatre

Teatri-Kombetar-protesta

In the beginning of 2018, the artists gathered in objection of the 2010 law ‘’For art and culture,’’ changed in 2014. One contradicted point was the governmental centering of directorial appointments to institutions as National Cinematography Center, State Filmography Archives, and National Library. These directors are nominated by the Minister of Culture, then Mirela Kumbaro, then chosen by a direct decision from the Council of Ministers, but will still appointed by a direct order by the Culture Minister.

The Minister backed down from this bill, however the artists gathered again to battle against the government on its bill for demolishing the National Theatre. The government claimed that the building is too old and cannot be reconstructed, thus passed a bill in its demolition and construction of a new building by a certain predetermined construction company. Both the decision for demolition and the already given tender angered the artists for lack of transparency and undemocratic decision-making. They protested for a few weeks, yet prime minister Edi Rama said ‘’Whether you like it or not, the theatre will be demolished.’’

The proposed architectural project by Danish architect Bjarke Ingels wasn’t received well by artists, whereas artists, scholars and architects said that the theatre holds incontestable values for our history and cultural heritage. Thus, the protesters proposed a reconstruction of the building, even though the Institute of Construction reported that the National Theatre needed a 90 percent level of restoration. 

Protests began, some proposed their own projects, yet, former Minister of Culture Kumbo didn’t participate in any of the discussion panels organised by the Media Commision and artists. Tirana Mayor Erion Veliaj did participate in some panels and promised that the theatre’s territory wouldn’t be violated. This caused that some figures as Robert Ndrenika, Arben Derhemi, Altin Basha, etc., to withdraw from the protest in reliance to Veliaj’s promise. This withdrawing caused a division among artists, some of whom still oppose the law, even though it passed twice with 75 votes in the parliament.

A pending reform for the Academy of Sciences

The need for change also knocked  at the Academy of Sciences’ doors on 2018. The academics delivered a platform to the Ministry of Education on Mar. 31, which is still waiting upon governmental approval. Academics Artan Fuga and Skender Gjinushi are still looking for a way out from the condition the institution has fallen. Recently Gjinushi said that the bill will be signed very soon and will correspond to the elections in the Academy for a director, deputy director and secretary.

National Library flooded after burning

The National Library endured a fire due to an electrical spark on Mar. 15, 2017, but fortunately didn’t suffer any irreplaceable damages. On June 23, 2018, Tirana had heavy rain showers which managed to flood the Library’s building and soak thousands of books and texts. Even though images of employees drying the texts with blow dryers or in the sun emerged in media, fortunately again, none of these suffered extreme damages and none of them were irreplaceable. Nevertheless, the Institute of Construction filed a report that the building is unsuitable for a National Library.

tar2-1

Democratic Party requests art decommunisation

An initial proposal by Agron Tufa about the docommunization of art, was discussed again by DP officials in 2018. The bill seeks to add an explanatory note to films and other artistic works produced during the social-realism regime which served the system’s propaganda, indicating their purpose to the public. This bill hasn’t be read yet in the parliament, yet it sparked debates among artists, writers and publishers.

A million Albanians didn’t read a book in 2017

Another debate was sparked by a report from the Albanian Institute of Statistics, INSTAT, which claimed that one million Albanians during 2017, hadn’t read at least one book, which implies the distancing of the Albanian reader from books. This report gave way to the movement ‘’ReadABook,’’ undertaken by publishers and the Ministry of Culture. 

The 21st edition of the Book Fair which opened its doors on Nov. 14 marked other issues that books face, such as bad translations, lack of orientation for the readers, and a forgetfulness of Albanian literature, especially for children. A media attention however, received the new book by renowned writer Ismail Kadare, ‘’When rulers dispute’’, which caused long lines of readers waiting to receive an autograph.

no-reading

Lahuta claimed by Serbs

The acknowledging from UNESCO of the Serbian ‘’singing accompanied by the gusle’’ and the instrument gusle which is similar to the Albanian lahuta (lute), as an intangible cultural heritage, wasn’t received well by Albanians and its media. Media claimed that Serbs stole our lahuta, and various musicologists said that lahuta is of Albanian origin. 

Yet, other scholars said that the lute is a Balkans instrument neither Albanian nor Serbian. Scholar Shaban Sinani who was part of the team responsible for preparing the documentation of Eposi i Kreshnikeve (Albanian Songs of Frontier Warriors), said that Serbia’s success isn’t an obstacle for ours. According to Shabani, the issue remains that our documentation has been stuck in lobbying since 2012.

Beethoven sonatas brought in Tirana by Tedi Papavrami

Beethoven sonatas were returned in Tirana on Nov. 3, 2018, thanks to violinist Tedi Papavrami. Papavrami came in Tirana with his new wife, Japanese pianist Maki Okada. He gave a concert with French pianist Francois-Frederic Guy at the Cultural Center of the Orthodox Church, and will be returning in Tirana again with other concerts.

Marc Chagall in Tirana

180 black and white prints from renowned 20th century artist Marc Chagall were exhibited at the Center for Openness and Dialogue, which is located at the prime ministry building. This exhibition was the last of a series hosted by COD, considered the most important one for 2018, which also closed the cultural year in that center. The prints displayed are illustrations used for Gogol’s Dead Souls, Shakespeare’s The Tempest and La Fontaine’s Fables.

chagall

Albanian film ‘’The Delegation’’ wins international award

The Albanian film ‘’The Delegation,’’ directed by Bujar Alimani and with a script by Artan Minarolli, won the Warsaw Grand Prix at the 34th edition of the International Film Festival in Warsaw.

Rare nautical map in Albania

A 1455 map by Genoese hartograph Bartolomeo Pareto for Papa Nicholas V, was exhibited at the Center for Openness and Dialogue as part of the Pan-national Year of Skanderbeg. The exhibition was made possible by architect and medieval hartography scholar Artan Shkreli. The map shows evidence of the influence of Skanderbeg in the Balkans and the spread of Albanian regions during the 15th century.

sken-8

The National Arts Gallery only hosts two exhibitions

Erzen Shkololli was appointed as the new director of the Albanian National Arts Gallery. In the beginning his appointment was well received by the artistic circles, but then he started showing lack of rectitude towards media and allowing only few exhibitions to be hosted in the Gallery. For 2018 only two exhibitions were hosted in the NAG, ‘’The transformation painter’’ from Edi Hila and ‘’Here- or rather there, is over there’’ by Flaka Haliti. 

If that wasn’t enough, the NAG together with the Ministry of Culture decided to give an end to the International Exhibition ‘’Onufri,’’ which allows an exchange among local and international artists, and gives an insight to the public about what is happening in the contemporary art sphere.

Eurovision 2019 representative song announced

Renowned singer Jonida Maliqi returned to the stage of the Song Festival after an 11 year-long absence. After winning the Festival, she will be representing Albania at Eurovision 2019 with the song ‘’Ktheju tokes’’ (Return to Motherland), composed and written by Eriona Rushiti. This song talks of the Albanian immigrants and calls them out, and will be sang in Albanian during Eurovision.

A sad year that separated us from great artists

Albania will miss great artists that contributed greatly to our arts and culture. The flying dancer Rexhep Celiku, art critic Gezim Qendro, Gjovalin Paci, Fadil Hasa, Ilia Terpini, Luan Qerimi, and Sulejman Dibra departed from this world.

Mid’hat Frasheri returns home

Nationalist’s Mid’hat Frasheri’s remains returned from the United States of America where he passed away in 1949 to Albania, and was buried at the Tirana Lake Park near his family members. A commemoration ceremony was held at the Academy of Sciences before his burial. Frasheri was the creator of the National Front, a national anti-communist resistance, he was a contributor of the latinised Albanian alphabet, was a writer and publisher of the first newspapers and magazines that adopted this alphabet.

1541927676_midhatfrasheri (1)
                    [post_title] => A recap of culture in Albania during 2018
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                    [post_content] => Jani Pjetri is a 77 year-old man from Berat, who though retired, is independently working as the caretaker of the St. Mary Church in the village Sinje of Berat. Pjetri returned from immigration in 2010, to find the church abandoned and with a broken roof from stone rocks. 

The St. Mary Church is built around 12th or 13th century at the entrance of a cave. It is located in a difficult rocky terrain and is a pilgrimage location for the local and pan-national orthodox christians. In 2015 the Church was declared as a first category cultural monument.

There is a legend for its construction. Legend has it that the entire village got together to built this church, but as the walls were erected during the day, they would crumble during the night. Its foundations wouldn’t hold. So the villagers tried all sorts of locations for constructing the foundations of the church’s walls, but they still collapsed at night. 

One night, an old lady saw a dream that a fire ignited at the orifice of a cave underneath the cliff. The villagers went to built the church there, and that’s where it has been residing for past seven centuries. 

Over the years until Pjetri returned, the church seemed to have been forgotten by the authorities. Pjetri said that when her returned from immigration, the church had a broken roof, lacked electricity, a toilet, and stairs. As he considers the church a holy place, he assembled a few money and made some repairs by himself.

Jani-Pjetri-ne-kishen-e-Shen-Merise-duke-folur-per-Reporterin-533x400

However, he couldn’t manage to complete all the repairs himself as he didn’t have enough money, he created an association within the village, and individual contributors have donated money to complete the necessary restoration of the church. 

Pjetri goes each week at Sinje to take care of the church. He deals with lacks of funds from the respective authorities, such as the municipality of Berat, the Ministry of Culture, or even Mitropolia in Berat who is supposed to supervise the building. 

Apart from lack of fund Pjetri also has to deal with vandalism. On a Nov. morning, Pjetri found out that the charity box and the electricity supply cable were stolen from the church. He wasn’t much worried about the box, as it collects very little money, but he was worried about the cable. ‘’The last time I went to the church, I saw that a part from the [electricity] cable was stolen from the pillar, so immediately went to the store and bought a replacing cable with the last five thousand leks left from my pension. Now I am waiting for someone to connect it,’’ said Pjetri.

When he saw the stolen cable and bought a new one to replace it, he notified the Metropolia of Berat to send someone to connect it. The Mitropolia administers a considerable amount of churches spread around the district. With its funds, it can only pay one person to take care of the church. Pjetri said that when he asked for help from Mitropolia for the broken roof, they said they didn’t have economical capacities.

Afterwards, Pjetri went to the Regional Directory of Culture to ask for funds, but they helped them in very moderate amounts. Officials from this directory said that after St. Mary Church was declared a first degree cultural monument, there have been some minimal interventions with their funds. 

In 2017 the directory intervened to fix the roof of the church, after a stone had broken it. An official said that the Ministry of Culture has promised investments on this church in fixing the roof, as it is in risk of crumbling due to the stone falling from the cliff. However, when this restoration will begin is uncertain. 

So far the church has only had Pjetri and his friends taking care of it, even though Pjetri is a permanent visitor to the institutions. In a wall placate at the church, it lists Lili Devole, Llazar Lacka, Kristaq Mjeshtri, Arqile Shtyti, Nasi Ferro, and other departed villagers as contributors in keeping the St. Mary Church standing. 

At the center of Sinje village, Pjetri is always invited for coffee. Other villagers give him coins or candles for the church, as they have no time to go up there. They consider him as the man who returned the church its missed attention. 

‘’This man did what neither the municipality, nor Mitropolia, or any one else have done so far,’’ said Ilirjan Toska, village chief of Sinje. 

Everyone in the village regardless of their religious faith, hold the church as a holy place. Pjetri has occasionally asked for help from the villagers for the church. They have helped him not only due to their respect for the holy place, but also from their respect for Pjetri, who though old, he comes in summer and winter to take care of the church. 

‘’This church is holy, all the residents believe in its legend and uncle Jani its keeping it alive. We will be grateful to him all our lives,’’ said Fatmir Sakaj, resident of the region.

 
                    [post_title] => 77 year-old man takes care of old Berat church
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                    [post_content] => By Sonja Methoxha

A debate recently stirred Albanian people’s sentiments over the heredity of the musical instrument lahuta (lute). This came after Serbia managed to successfully submit to UNESCO its candidature of ‘’singing to the accompaniment of the gusle’’ as an intangible cultural heritage. 

Panicked media in Albania rushed to conclusions that this successful submission means that the lute is not Albanian after all but Serbian. However, Serbia merely nominated in safeguarding the practice of singing using the gusle (Serbian lute), the instrument and its epos, but in the paperwork submitted it didn’t dispute that this practice is present in other Balkan countries, one of them Albania. 

Academic and musicologist Vasil Tole has said that the lute is not Albanian, nor Serbian, but a Balkan instrument. Its origins are said to have no distinct provenance. A team raised by the Albanian Ministry of Culture in which Tole participated, managed to complete its own documentation concerning this practice, our Eposi i Kreshnikeve (Albanian Songs of the Frontier Warriors), and other relevant practices, as intangible cultural heritage to UNESCO.

According to Tole, the five-thousand page documentation is supposed to have been submitted two years earlier than Serbia, but nothing has been done so far due to failed lobbying from the Albanian Ministry of Culture and Ministry of Foreign Affairs. That is especially strange as the Albanian lute won the prize Europa Nostra, before the team submitted its paperwork to UNESCO.

If then Albania won the Europa Nostra for the lute, submitted its paperwork to UNESCO earlier than Serbia, and Serbia itself didn’t dispute the tradition in the Balkans, why did the latter country manage to submit its paperwork earlier than Albania? What is the known heredity of the Albanian lute, except the Eposi i Kreshnikeve?

Renowned ethnomusicologist Ramadan Sokoli, who passed away in 2008, published a book in 1991 titled ‘’Musical instruments of Albanian people.’’ He writes in the book that the earliest known testimony of stringed instruments in Albanian regions dates from 1335 in a painted fresco in the Desan monastery (located in Desan, Kosovo). 

The fresco depicts a group of men dancing under the sounds of the lahuta, glariska, tambour, and what Sokoli writes ‘the balloon,’ which might be something of a mousette. Sokoli writes that this fresco is the earliest evidence of stringed instruments in the Balkans. In his studies, Sokoli names the various lutes in various areas, along with the similarities and differences, where the main difference is the sounding. 

The north Albanian lahuta is a one-stringed lute made of horsehair which is played with a bow. The south Albanian llahuta, might have a similar name but is a four-stringed instrument played with a sort of feather. These instruments are built and sound differently. A variation of lahuta is laurija which is made with more than one string and is used in central Albania. These instruments are also inherited by Arbereshe Albanians in Italy and Arvanitasit, the Albanians of Greece.

These musical instruments, especially the lahuta, are used in the north to accompany songs depicting traditional epic stories of bravery or ballads based on Albanian oral legends. Except the renowned Eposi i Kreshnikeve, the north also has pagan songs sang with the lahuta for Kershendella (Christmas). Such songs are ‘’The night of Buzmi,’’ ‘’The returning of Sun from summer feast,’’ ‘’The night of the great Mother Earth.’’ These pagan songs sang with the lahuta are millenium-long heritages dedicated to nature’s rebirth.

In his book Sokoli also lists other nations which use variations of the lute. The southern Slavs from the Dinaric Alps use the gusle; India uses the ravanahatha; Kazakhstan use the kobyz; Armenia and Uzbekistan use the kamancheh, which is related to the rebab used in Arabia. Other similar instruments are the komuz in Kyrgyzstan, the erhu in China, the masenqo or chira-wata in Ethiopia, etc.. In Greece there is a variation of laurija known as lyre, and in Bulgaria and Macedonia they have the gadulka.

All these instruments are built and used similarly, but convey different musical expressions and sounds. These instrumental ‘cousins’ are descended from Middle East and Persia, countries which Sokoli and other scholars convincingly admit as the first to have adapted and used stringed instruments. These instruments then spread in the Balkans and Europe through the Byzantine Empire from VIII to IX centuries, and the Arab invasion in Spain. 

Yet, apart from the 14th century fresco, there are scarce evidence about how early Albania adopted this instrument and its practice. Nevertheless its tradition and influence is notable, especially in education. 

‘’It deserves to be noted the pivotal ethic and didactic role that the lahutars played in the life of our society, by preserving, developing and carrying through generations their repertoire. During the centuries-old captivity, the rhapsode songs which exalted the virtues, activity and freedom-loving spirit of the braves, bred the desire to follow the example of the finest in the listeners,’’ wrote Sokoli in his book, which clearly implies the intangible cultural heritage Albania and its people have garnered from the practice of this instrument.

 
                    [post_title] => Albanian lute heritage dates since 14th century
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                    [post_content] =>  Even though women in Albania makeup half of the entire population, their path to entrepreneurship and business faces hardships. An investigative piece by Mimoza in the Voice of America Balkans inspects some of the issues businesswomen in Albania face.

Women are the half of the coin of a normal functioning of society, holding a crucial contribution in the welfare of both the economy and the social spectrum. However, in terms of establishing and carrying out private businesses they have faced various hardships towards survival and success. Only 35 percent of Albanian existing businesses as in the service, production or other sectors are owned by women.

Experts believe that women face more difficulties and discrimination than men in the business fields, even though issues faced might be the same, from corruption in customs and the tax agency, unfair competition and informality. A thrifting entrepreneurship from women positively affects the state’s economy and welfare, thus it is important to offer a kind of security. 

The Association for Entrepreneur Women have laid claims that post-90s policies and governances have undertaken limited works towards this interest group. However, since 2017 we have a state’s minister for entrepreneurial protection, who offers a few reliefs for businesswomen, considering their complaints. 

‘’After the 90s the first to overpower the great problems of poverty were women. Think of an unemployed person. Think of a person who has children to raise. And yet, women did it,’’ said Flutura Xhabija from the Professional, Business and Crafts Women Association. 

Even though we live in a patriarchal society with multiple hurdles where economical problems remain in abeyance unsolved, experts have noticed a positive trend in the progress of women owned businesses these past 28 years. 

Xhabija said that the number of female businesswomen has increased over the years. From previously 21 percent, the number has now grown into 33 percent without including the three percent of female farmers. As things are going more in balance, the crafts women are also receiving more weight. 

State economy observers claim that the investments of women is focused on the small business, or the family one. Female owned business in the country have usually started as small and medium individual businesses.

‘’A few are in judicial forms as limited liability company. These include from beauty salons, up to activities with consumer service nature, and fewer in production,’’ said Dr. Aelita Mani, director of the Business Administration Dept. at the Luarasi University. 

Out of 200 large business in Albania, only 37 are owned or led by women. Yet, the state’s minister for entrepreneurial protection is a female. The minister, Sonila Qato, seeks to help and safeguard the Albanian business.

Through various programs Qato aims to support women in Albania, also by enabling them qualifications and traineeship programs. From the two last fiscal packages approved by the parliament, one was especially for self-employment. 

However, as mentioned, women face more hardships in business success than men. Dr. Mani says that these issues come from the corruption in the customs, corruption in the tax service, and pressure. 

‘’We function in a different way and the tax agency cannot classify us. They give us solutions which hangs us around and confuse us, and then what happens is that two tax agents hide behind a tree across your store and wait until they catch you doing something wrong. If the government can’t help us, then it shouldn’t frustrate us,’’ said Manjola Lloja, director of craftsmanship store ‘’Nje mar nje mrapsh’’, with works of 250 women and girls from all over Albania.

The discrimination of businesswomen is a visible trait and it can be found in fiscal policies, quick information, and tenders for entrepreneurships. Other discriminations arise from the business model, employees, and annual profit. This discrimination also leads to less benefits, support, and more prejudice and vulnerability to blackmail. 

The minister for entrepreneurial protection Sonila Qato said that all businesswomen in Albania have an ally, since she herself is a woman. Qato said that she will try to understand their activities and offer solutions to issues with the administration. Some experts though, offer more concrete solutions as to how the government could help.

Dr. Mani said that help can come from easier fiscal policies on taxes which would incite more businesses to open, and fiscal policies to support loans or grants, even in cases where no ownership title exists. Xhabija said that the government should offer more funds and grants to women, and instead of putting percentages, to ask questions on how they make it.

Qato said that a concrete focus are women living in rural areas, first to enable them wages and secondly to give them a fair opportunity to compete for funds or state subsidies for agriculture.

Another field which remains to be notices is tourism. Women see themselves far from the resort investments, but prefer more authentic artisan works and traditional cuisine. Lloja said that there are more than enough resorts for tourism, but more should be on the little things. For instance, at the Kruja bazaar tourists can see how fezes are made. Another authentic Albanian touristic activity is offered in Shkodra in a small loom atelier, where women work the fabric by banging the batten with their feet.

The Albanian Investment Development Agency (AIDA) is one of the agencies which has financially supported hundreds of women to start their businesses. UN Women has also dedicated grants to entrepreneur women, and UNDP is focusing in women’s work qualifications. So, in a sense, progress is being done to support businesswomen, and that has left them a bit more optimistic.

‘’Hardships are forgotten when success is achieved,’’ said Xhabija optimistically.

 
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                    [post_content] => The pressively asked question as to what was happening to the annual national exhibition Onufri, the National Arts Gallery finally answered to the anticipating artists and public on the decision to close it. 

The exhibition was previously sought to be ended by the Ministry of Culture in 2016, yet the former director of the NAG, Artan Shabani decided to continue it, as he puts importance in tradition and he doesn’t see a real reason to put an end to this artistic tradition.

‘’I am aware that we have an arts scene, even though oftenly vague, because we don’t have many structures to promote contemporary art. Albania doesn’t have a museal network for contemporary art, even less a contemporary arts museum,’’ said Shabani. 

The annual national exhibition Onufri is a 20 year long tradition to promote Albanian contemporary art, and enable a network between the local Albanian artists and international ones. 

The presentation of contemporary and the artistic exchange was to happen in an environment lacking institutional support or independent initiatives. This led to Onufri mostly supporting the exchange, which also gave an push and input in creating new work methods and artistic practices. More independent initiatives to support the local-international artistic exchange also arized over the years.

NGA explained in a public declaration that past edition of Onufri exhibitions hasn’t been in the expected level of organization and presentational display of the artists. Moreover, the local-international exchange has mostly been fictitious as the foreign participating artists didn’t attend the exhibition. 

Another issue noticed was the approach of the curator. In a few past editions the curator would directly invite foreign artists to participate in the exhibition, whereas the Albanian artists would have an unfair selective process, which dimmed the public interest and the activities’ value. 

NGA also added that Onufri has fulfilled its purpose and it is now outdated. The Gallery aims a reconception of the presentation structure with a focus on arts developments and their reflections on crucial socio-economic changes in Albania and region. 

The artistic society has rebelled against this decision. Two loud voices which have spoken earlier on this issue, renowned painter and professor Gazmend Leka and art curator Andi Tepelena are denouncing the decision taken to end the exhibition.

Tepelena claims that the Minister has had in her agenda to give an end to this exhibition after all, after her previous trials failed. He added that Onufri also defines he political reactions, and it is thus another victim of this politics and governance. Yet, he said that some servile artists towards power are to blame for the conditions of the art in Albania today.

‘’It is the artists who should decide on this [ending Onufri]. This centralization of even the cultural life brings this result,’’ said Tepelena.

Leka on the other hand seemed pretty indignant over the situation. He claimed that the NGA has no power to give an end to the Onufri exhibition, but directs its staff in accomplishing the project. He calls the decision shameless and malicious. 

Leka also added that Onufri gave a chance to artists to find each other and see their work, but it also gave a chance to the public to see what is going on with the Albanian and international visual arts. 

‘’There is a great malevolence here, for this country which is torn apart precisely because of these sophisticated thoughts on modern art. Bollocks!,’’ exclaimed Leka.
                    [post_title] => National Arts Gallery closes Onufri
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                    [post_content] => The end-of-year celebrations in Albania are a happy festivity of out nation, as the cities decorate their centers and streets with various shiny lights, trees and other objects. In Shkodra this Christmas a street exhibition called ‘’Environmental Crime’’ was set up by volunteers of the Ecomind movement. 

The youth installed the Christmas tree at the center of Shkodra made up of plastic bottles gathered from the streets of Shkodra, the lake and the Bojana river. The message sought to be transmitted is the need of ecological and environmental preservation that can be reached only if we work together. 

‘’This installation with recyclable bottles has a purpose to raise awareness among people about the environmental pollution. These bottles are gathered by us from all the mission we have carried out, and made the tree to show the nature preservation,’’ said Ecomind director, Mirsad Basha.

Basha said that the most polluted areas are the rivers, as cities and villages nearby have turned them into garbage cans. The areas near naval estuaries are also quite polluted which negatively affects nature and tourism. 

The estuary of Bojana river doesn’t only pollute the Albanian maritime, but it also polluted the Montenegrin part of the sea, which Basha said it creates institutional issues. Regardless of the legislation concerning the environmental protection, nature somehow still continues to be contaminated in most parts of the country. 

The exhibition of ‘’Environmental Crime’’ by the students of the Fine Arts Faculty was attending by the OSCE ambassador Bernd Borchardt. The ambassador said that garbage dumping in the environment or sewage, the forest exploitation and burning, as well as riverbeds damages, are some of the environmental crimes in Albania that still go uncondemned by the government. 

‘’These are visible and serious problems for which are done very limited criminal prosecutions. Last year [2017] only 32 cases related to environmental crime have faced the court. That is why it is important to raise awareness about issue related to the mutual nature and environment,’’ said ambassador Borchardt during the exhibition. 

Ecomind said that in the years to come the environmental preservation will be one of the most crucial issues for the Albanian society and governance. For that reason it is important that the society will be aware of nature’s significance, and work together to safeguard it. 

According to Basha all the bottles that make up the tree are found in the most beautiful and attractive parts of the lake, river and seashore. The message is pretty clear that attention and care should be paid, otherwise the ecological system might be harmed, and both lake might be ridded of fish and the forests harmed from the plastics. 

Lobbying and awareness campaigns are to be paid attention from the non-governmental organizations both towards civic society to educate them about nature preservation, but also towards institutions to profess the legislation. 

The institutions in the past few years have positively acted in combating the forest exploitation and hunting. However, the environmental crime is still present as hydropower dams on the rivers are still being constructed, and due to lack of garbage disposal deposits in urban areas, or their disposal in the rivers.
                    [post_title] => Shkodra celebrates Christmas with environmental exhibition
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                    [post_content] => Thousands of Albanian Catholics, Christians and Orthodox people celebrated Christmas, one of the most important celebrations of their faith and religion. In Tirana people gathered in the churches to hold the traditional ceremony and other organized celebration concerning this festivity. 

The religious leaders held the Christmas masses and called upon the followers to protect the poor and to peacefully cooperate with each other in order to lead a better life within the community. The religious leaders said that the Christ was born to help other people which are away from temporary luxuries, and that we should hold relations with them at each time. 

The coexistence among the religious communities is of the most notable characteristics of Albania and its people. The religious harmony is one of the most valuable features of the Albanian nation and religious tolerance is its most remarkable attribute. The religious believers respect one another’s festivities and participate in the joys of each one. 

Recently in Oct. 25, the Interreligious Council of Albania received the Polish Prize Sergio Vieira de Mello non-governmental human rights award, for their activities for the peaceful coexistence and cooperation of societies, religions and cultures. 

Our country has a long history of religious harmony between the various communities and its people. Citizens aren’t differentiated or discriminated for their religions as it is something deeply personal for them. Albania has been praised for its peaceful interactions between the religious communities and lately has been gaining more recognition.

Christmas was also celebrated by Albanian communities in the diaspora, such as Montenegro and Macedonia. The Albanian descendant nation of Kosovo also celebrated Christmas in a mass at the Mother Teresa Cathedral in Pristina, with wishes of prosperity, peace and understanding among the people.

The Christmas celebration of the Albanian community in Washington at the United States was joined by Charles Brown, Vatican’s ambassador in Albania, who held the mass in the Albanian language for the people there. The mass was dedicated to two beloved Albanian figures, our national hero George Castriot Skanderbeg and Mother Teresa. 

But this celebration excepted Albanians from various communities in the United States, and also from different religions, so as to celebrate Christmas in a real Albanian fashion.

 
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                    [post_content] => As Tirana is the capital of Albania, there are numerous events to follow daily. Those events start from having a coffee at the countless cozy cafes around the city, to having a warm wine at the Skanderbeg Square, checking out the Museums and exhibitions at various galleries, nightlife, the numerous movies at the cinemas, or get inspired by the strong comeback of the National Theatre with its many shows at various locations. 

For Christmas Eve, the Municipality of Tirana and the Agency for Parks and Recreations will be organizing the annual ‘’Christmas in Tirana’’ concert at the stage of Skanderbeg Square on Dec. 24 at 7 p.m.. The symphonies of the most beloved Christmas carols, Noel, La Spagnola, Sing-Sing, Feliz Navidad, Silent Night, Jingle Bang, etc., will be played by the Tirana woodwind orchestra. The carols will be sang by Armando Kllogjeri, Ardita Meni, Linda Kazani and Suzana Frasheri, and the concert will be conducted by Valmir Xoxe.

For Dec. 25, the Christmas day, the charity organization EcoVolis will organize the annual ‘’Cook an extra plate’’ which is a charity event by cooking extra food and giving it away to the less fortunate. EcoVolis is stationed at Mother Teresa Square that day and will be gathering the food given by people and volunteers and then dispersing it to poor families. The idea behind this charity event is to make the less fortunate people feel as part of a greater family and closer to the community they inhabit, since Christmas is about family and spreading love. 

"But I am sure I have always thought of Christmas time, when it has come round -- apart from the veneration due to its sacred name and origin, if anything belonging to it can be apart from that -- as a good time; a kind, forgiving, charitable, pleasant time: the only time I know of, in the long calendar of the year, when men and women seem by one consent to open their shut-up hearts freely, and to think of people below them as if they really were fellow-passengers to the grave, and not another race of creatures bound on other journeys,’’ wrote Charles Dickens in his A Christmas Carol.

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                    [post_title] => Merry Christmas from Tirana
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            [post_date] => 2019-01-18 11:38:21
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            [post_content] => TIRANA, Jan. 14 - Over 220 red-figured ceramic vessels dating back to the 4th century BC were unearthed at the necropolis of the Dauta, Kokomani and Spitalle hills, in Durres. 

These vessels are believed to be products from Illyrian tribes that inhabited that area of Durres.

The ceramic with red figures is essential in understanding the cultural reality and mundane life of the Illyrian tribes.

It appears the Illyrians inhabited areas from the 5th century BC until the 4th century BC. This presence is a testimony of the ancient and continuous trade relations between the Illyrian tribes and Mediterranean cultures, especially in the Adriatic coast. 

The first evidence refers to imports with symposium scenes, toilette, etc., and regarding to mythological themes, Gods and heroes are figured, especially Hercules. Other themes include the epos, the everyday civic life, athletics, meetings, etc.. 

The Durres made vessels with red figures differ from the imported products by the colors of the rose-ocher clay and the high quality refined decorations, assumed to be inspired by Apulian images. The extraction of the used clay is proved by chemical analyses made from the Currila hill’s deposited layers, located at city’s north along the shore. To this result is attributed the importance of trade relations that Epidamnus (ancient Durres) had with the Helenian cities and Adriatic coast states, characterized by the cultural relations with the Illyrian world.

The geographic characteristics and the city’s position at the entry of eastern Adriatic as an historical harbor for trade paths has helped in the economic relations between the city and other Mediterranean realities, especially with southern Italy. This has created conditions for relationships with schools of the period’s painters, particularly with the 5th and ending 4th centuries BCE masters. The historical connections in terms of trade and culture with southern Italy, Illyrian realities and Helenian world, strengthened new ceramic technics in the city, especially the Attican style.  

The Attican imitations of ceramics produced in Durres wouldn’t achieve its standards, but nevertheless the Durres stylistic characteristics faced an appraisal by the local inhabitants. The local production was intensified from years 350 to 300 BCE, marking thus a production end. 

Some of these productions belong to luxury ceramic due to its refined aesthetical aspects, which were much requested by the local elite. There is a lack of kraters from the discovered containers in Durres. these discoveries have allowed the identification of trade partners such as Apulia, Calabrians, Lukans, Campanians, etc.. Many vessels display stylistic affinities with Apulians’ world (the Dauns, Yapiges, Messapians). It is worth stressing that each center of antiquity has its own characteristics. 

The first Attican imports date from the 5th century BCE, which are exhibited at the Durres Archeology Museum. The imported works of Brygos painter as amphoras with goddess Nike refiguration, the oenochoe with Athens, and Hercules, linked with the city’s establishment according to Appiani.

This last scene is also present in other works dating in the 5th century BCE. The Attican influence phase ends by year 350 BC with the local productions of great amphora with an Amazonian scene.

Local amphoras depict scenes from the Trojan war, where Amazonian queen Penthesilea on a horse opposite shielded Achilles on his feet, and another Amazonian warrior seated nearby are refigured. This scene representation allows us to see the painter’s perspective. Complementary motifs of the Attican style of 5th century BC are leaves, mints or crosses.

In this period the Durres ceramics is enriched and inspired by the Apulian style, which are influenced in the local works of the Durres masters. Such an instance is in fruition of the ceramic mosaics subjects, especially the Durres Beauty. 

The high demand for products by the Illyrian domestic market pushed the local masters to intensify their production by 330 BCE. This high production period turned Durres as the main center of the Illyrian market. The local production of the red-figure vessels in Durres for the Illyrian tribes led to a decline of imports from Apulia and other Mediterranean centers, and it is assumed that the year 330 BCE marks the dominance of local production in durres and in whole Illyria. 

The names of local painters are unknown because they didn’t leave any personal notes or names in their works. Nevertheless, this doesn’t create an issue in distinguishing the hand of specialized masters, for example the Master of Venus and Eros; the Master of goddess Nike, who prefers Dionysus scenes. Eros and Nike are typical refigurations of the 4th century BC. 

The cultural-economic development of Durres is also evident by the enriched funerary objects, in which by the of 4th century BC we find the presence of lekythos with reliefs and decorations. The scenes refer to duels, abductions of nymphs or Amazons. On the figures it is used a white paste depicting rosette-shaped flowers over their shoulders. By the end of the century a black color with mild luster on a rosey background with line intersections is used, with white-colored painted drops and elements. The general tendency of the masters seemed to be the crossing from a rich-on-elements scenography, to a more modest one with silhouette technique. This allows us to classify the subjects in two developmental categories.

The first category belongs to the 5th up to 4th centuries BC which follows the Attican and Apulian tradition of scenes and decorative elements refiguration. The second category includes the 4th century BC with local productions with refiguration of Venus, who is oftenly painted with Nike and Eros; the refiguration of Dionysus or Silenians, Maenads, Trojan war scenes, the return of Odyssey, etc..

The preferred scenes from civilians were mainly those concerning the everyday life, from home, city, athletics, reconstructions of Phebes, women, men, etc.. Present are also the animals linked with the Gods or everyday life, like owls, bulls, doves, panthers, horses, dogs, swans and rabbits. 

The scenes are enriched by floral motifs with palmette and spiral flowers, whereas the lip and neck of the vessels are decorated by various models, such as bay leaves, olives, sea waves, etc.. In some cases the scenes are decorated in the lower part with mint motifs, angles, and crosses in the center. 

By the end of the 4th century BC there is generally a lack of dye quality in the red-figured ceramics. It is usually passed from a complex scene with three or more figures, to one figure, which is less reckoned. In this period of ending 330 BC, the red-figured lekythos with the silhouette technique are the main Durres products, which are exported both to other Illyrian and Mediterranean centers. It is worth stressing that these products seized the Illyrian markets during the 4th and 3rd centuries BC. 

Supporting this evidence are the kraters discovered in Belsh and the amphoras discovered in Klos, which are produced by Durres masters and exhibited at the National History Museum. In Durres are also discovered Gnathia vases from beginning 3rd century BC. The majority of the red-figures ceramics comes from discovered burial objects, mainly with women or athletes, of various kinds, like amphoras, pelikes, oenochoe, hydrias, nuptial lebes, lekanes, skyphoses, lekythos, situlas, etc..

These vases are exhibited at the Durres Archeology Museum, the Tirana Archeology Museum, and the National History Museum. Owing to its predominant role in the Illyrian markets, Durres can be attributed the alias ‘’cultural beacon,’’ because it actually signaled the access of ships at Illyrian culture areas. 

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            [post_title] => Illyrian ceramic vessels found in Durres
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